Assemblage – week four

Analyzing interweaver of publishing’s relation to broader society and the changes in publishing, media and the social, based on two theories which are ‘Actor Network Theory’ by Bruno Latour and ‘Assemblage Theory’ by DeLanda

The term ‘assemblages’ called by Bruno Latour is means a network which combine with lots of different parts, and it can be divided to human and non-human “actants” . Bruno Latour also thinks that many relations act as a whole are based on the interactions between material and concept.

Based on the ‘Actor Network Theory’, the human of component in media may include producer, reader, distributor, reception, audience, electronic device repairer, etc. On the other hand, non-human “actants” may include iPad, iPhone, erearder, font, network system, software, etc. Both human and non-human elements in media work together constantly because there is relationship between all of the elements.

DeLanda’s assemblage theory was basically similar to Bruno Latour’s theory. DeLanda’s theory indicated that all components and relations had been connected and constantly changing. DeLanda provided an example of assemblage that indicated the importance and different role of each part. The material role and expressive role in DeLanda’s assemblage theory can be known as human and non-human in Bruno Latour’s theory. Different roles have their own function and the components can be recombine or replace various parts. All of the roles are use to maintain each other (Shaviro, S, 2007).

Below is the example of assemblage


‘Actor Network Theory’, Wikipedia, <> accessed in 18 March 2012

‘Actor Network Rochambeau’, any-space-whatever blog, <>, November 14, 2010 (on Latour)

Shaviro, Steven (2007) ‘DeLanda: A New Philosophy of Society’, The Pinocchio Theory

Tatnall & Gidding, 1999, <> accessed in 18 March 2012


Mode of publishing – Week 3

Online publishing has quickly become a popular alternative to physical materials. This particular mode of publishing provides consumers with convenience and accessibility and also broadens the community of audiences publishers can communicate with.

A paywall refers to a system which prevents online users from accessing and engaging with online content without paid subscription. This means users must pay a certain amount, may be by weekly, monthly or annually, in order to access and read news material online.

Accroding to ‘Salmon’, he compares the paywall systems taken on board by the New York Times and other newspapers such as the Wall Street Journal and the Financial Times. By doing so, he explains how and why the paywall system of the NYT is more successful and efficient than that of the WSJ or the FT.

Salmon argues that the Times pay wall is porous, it is easy to get around however that’s the whole reason he believes it is successful. “It allows anybody, anywhere, to read any NYT article they like. That makes the NYT open and inviting — and means that I continue to be very happy to link to NYT stories”.

Salmon also points out that if people value and appreciate something, they are more likely to be happy to pay for it. Additionally, the Times trusts its readers so if they value what they are getting from the NYT, they will pay for it.

In contrast, Salmon states that the paywall system of the WSJ and the FT take a hard pay wall approach because they treat their readers with mistrust. Also, the WSJ and the FT have a defensive paywall system, “…fearing that if their readers can get their content for free, then they won’t pay”.

The different online paywall systems initiated by the NYT, the WSJ and the FT serve as interesting business models for future online published content. By exploring these different paywalls systems, we are able to distinguish models that work from the ones that don’t.

Moreover, Salmon’s article proposes that if you give people a sample of something free that is a good experience for them then eventually they will pay for the subscription. He uses the Indianapolis Museum of Art as an example. The Museum moved from a free admission policy to a paid one and their paid membership increased by 3%. Same with the Minneapolis Institute of Arts whose membership increased by 33%.

In conclusion, I would rather pay all those news subscription fees all over again instead of scrolling those tiny little pictures and reading those teensy words online.


Salmon, Felix (2011) ‘How The New York Times Paywall is Working’, Wired, August 14, <>

Ereaders – Week 2

In current few decades, the mode of publishing has been obviously changed from printing to digital because of the development of technology. It is not surprise that printing will be wash out by digital in the future.

Even though the printing is still using in society, many people do not simply depending on it. Because of the technology, there are lot of different platforms for public to publish and incept the information.

Traditionally the term publishing referred to the distribution of printed works such as newspapers, magazines and books. However, with the advent of the Internet and digital information, the traditional forms of publishing have been beginning to change and take new shapes. Digital information has expanded the scope of publishing.

Writers can now publish articles and information onto the internet on many different platforms and forums, for instances, YouTube, Google, websites, blogs, micro-publishing, e-readers, iPhones and iPads.

Today with the invention of iPads and e-readers the way that we read and live our lives is starting to change. No longer can people be bothered to walk to the library and rent out a book, take it home and read it. Now you buy an e-reader or an iPad and you download as many books as you want in minutes. We don’t have to carry books around anymore where we can just carry around one device (Naughton, John, 2010).

Publishing content on e-readers such as the iPad or the Kindle provides readers with an ‘immersive reading experience’, something that a physical book cannot provide. According to ‘Naughton’, he illustrates this very point by using the magazine, the ‘Econimist’ as his example. Naughton explains that when people buy the Economist, they make a week ‘appointment’ with the magazine, meaning that readers set aside time to read the magazine.

By making the Economist available for download on the iPad, Naughton claims readers will experience many advantages such as being able to download actual content, read-Download, have a much easier and more pleasant reading experience than its printed counterpart and interact with content that is clever, informative, intriguing and fresh (Naughton, John, 2010).

Furthermore, according to ‘National Public Radio’, e-devices have not only changes the concept of the book but also the psychology of how we access books. In the past, in order for a reader to read a particular book, he/she had to overcome ‘obstacles’. For example, the consumer had to go to the bookstore, ask for the book and if it isn’t there or isn’t available, he/she would have to wait for the book Now individuals are able to read and access a book whenever he/she desires. E-devices allow readers to choose the means by which they will access the book as it allows readers to read the book when, where and how he/she wants to.

In conclusion, the variety of publishing has reached an unprecedented scale combined with multimedia platform to express ideas and convey messages. E-readers will continue to bring publishing to a great new level (Lehrer, Jonah, 2010).


Naughton, John (2010) ‘Publishers take note: the iPad is altering the very concept of a ‘book’ The Guardian, December 19, <> accessed 4 March 2012

National Public Radio (2010) ‘E-Book Boom Changes Book Selling And Publishing’, December 21, <> accessed 4 March 2012

Lehrer, Jonah (2010) ‘The Future of Reading’, Wired, September 8, <> accessed 4 March 2012