ARTS2090 – Assignment 3 – Question 1

‘It makes increasingly less sense even to talk about a publishing industry, because the core problem publishing solves—the incredible difficulty, complexity, and expense of making something available to the public—has stopped being a problem.’ (Clay Shirky, ‘Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable’, Are digital and networked media dismantling the “publishing industry”? Is it being replaced? If so, what is replacing it? If not, what is the publishing industry becoming, and how is it doing so? Are there new difficulties and complexities or expenses involved?

Making something available to the public is what the publishing industry primarily engaged in. Publishing industry can be defined as the combination of a various groups, like, Books, Journals, Magazines and Newspapers. The three main issues bring from traditional publishing industry, incredible difficulty, complexity and expense, have been solved when the digital publishing industry emerged (Clay Shirky, 2009).

Firstly, the incredible difficulty can be geographic and demographic limit. Print publishing can only sell their product in limit area and for limit target audience. For example, The Sydney Morning Herald is publishing in Sydney for local people and it is unlikely to buy it in other cities or countries. Some Australians who live in other counties cannot buy ‘The Sydney Morning Herald’ and know about what happen to their own city or country, whereas, the overseas people who live in Sydney can only buy the local newspaper and cannot read the newspaper publishing from their own country.

Secondly, complexity is one of the problems because the print publishing industry is combined with various parts where it needs many specific physical tools, like, printer, ink, paper and storage, and also technical workers. Also, the print publishing industry needs to print out the hard copies one by one with single machine which is time consuming. Moreover, many procedures need to be completed, such as, research, contribution and proofreading, before the typographer can print out the final version of newspaper. Additionally, it is hard to alter any content in print because all of the procedures need to complete it over again. Therefore, print publishing industry should be strict with accuracy.

Thirdly, the expense of print publishing is more than online publishing because print publishing industry includes many elements where each of them cost much. For instance, the rent of the company’s office and the storage for putting the hard copies print, delivery cost, cost of the printing machine and hire of technical workers.

Three of above issues have been solved when the effects of the rapid development of technologies on publishing come out. From the print to online, the occupations and roles involved are diverse and numerous. Whether a journalist, magazine editor or advertising executive, multimedia formats signify the industry is at an exciting time and subject to express transform.

Are digital and networked media dismantling the “publishing industry”?

Digital and networked media have not entirely dismantled the “publishing industry”, however, it is no doubt that it has dismantled in a certain level.

According to the idea from the theorist, ‘DeLanda’, publishing industry can be an example of assemblage. DeLanda mention that entities do not everlastingly belong in single network, but diverse platforms can be applied when its character and belongings are taking with.

As the publishers and the audience are reattaching and separating themselves to the various environments and keeping all of its belongings, the human and non-human actants that are involved in the “publishing industry”, like, journalists or magazine editor, and can be found alike in the digital and networked media. The capacity of being various and being connective to digital and networked media has indicated in this expansion of traditional media.

However, lot of insufficiency still exists in traditional media when it compare with the contemporary media, digital and networked media.

Apparently, digital publishing industry means that the content turns from print to electronic form where the journalist, book author or magazine editor can distributed the content online and everyone can approached as long as they are able to access to internet. All of the information, data, news, content, etc, can be search, download and read online. Digital publishing industry can solve almost all of the difficulties and disadvantage bring from print publishing industry.

Publishing industry assemblage can also be said as a network of publishing and distribution stimulated by how publishing affected by public, the use of technology, and the mode in which content can be issued.

In publishing industry, print-journalism can be a good example to be focus on and study in this digital revolution. Along with the transformation to online journalism, the approach in which digital and network media are dismantling the traditional publishing industry can be probed into both specifically, and in general.

The Internet Technologies writer, ‘Clay Shirky’, states that “If you want to know why newspapers are in such trouble, the most salient fact is this: Printing presses are terrifically expensive to set up and to run”.

Reducing the process of publishing is always the objective of cutting down costs. The dismantling of this publishing assemblage resonated that it is importance on removing the intermediary which involved in the procedure of publishing. Digital publishing industry involved fewer steps on publishing, whereas, print-journalism involved complicated processes on publishing.

Evidently, Digital and networked media can reach widely audience without time or location limited. The audience can search, read, download or save any global news or information whenever they like, even the content are published in other counties far from their current locality. It is what the print-journalism do not able to reach it.

Multi-media platform is the emphasis of digital and networked media where mass of platform had been formed constantly, such as, YouTube, Tumblr, Blogspot and Facebook. It has created the vast space to public for comment, share, connect and discuss. Interconnection between the publisher and viewer is significant to journalism in which latest information can be passing through everyone.

Obviously, print-journalism can only produce stated quantity per day and the forms of content are also fewer than digital and networked media. News and information can be released as much as you can in networked media. Various form of content are able to publish in internet, like, text, image, video, sound or animation. There are no conditions in which form you should use, even from single sentence to voluminous text, all content are able to distribute via internet.

According to the Actor Network Theory from the French thinker, ‘Bruno Latour’, he mentioned that all relations and elements, even human or non-human actants in the network, should be treated equally and all of the elements should have equal agency. He also states that all elements are playing their own role but related to each others in an assemblage, so that, the relation will changes respectively when one element change or it will created a new form of assemblage (any-space-whatever, 2010).

Therefore, the “publishing industry” has been dismantled in a certain level by the digital and networked media in which the internet and new age advances perceives its conversion is booming to the publishing industry.

Is it being replaced?

In current society, everything are rapid developed and it is hard to distinguish where the old ends and the new begins, especially, in the aspect of “publishing industry”. Therefore, traditional media is not totally replaced by the digital and networked media.

“The problem newspapers face isn’t that they didn’t see the internet coming, they figured out early on that they needed a plan to deal with it, and during the early 90s they came up with not just one plan but several.” quote from (Clay Shirky, 2009).

Print-journalism is not waiting for replaced by the new media but constantly to upgrade and strengthen for facing the new media. There are two plans, even is not efficiency, print-journalism has trying to deal with new media which has mentioned by ‘Clay Shirky’. “One was to partner with companies like America Online, a fast-growing subscription service that was less chaotic than the open internet. Another plan was to educate the public about the behaviors required of them by copyright law. New payment models such as micropayments were proposed.” (Clay Shirky, 2009).

‘Paywall’ is a way developed by newspaper industry to sustain their business. ‘Paywall’ refers to the system of online newspaper that partial news will provide to public in free, but to get further valuable and accountable news, audience should pay for them. ‘Paywall’ is advocated by ‘The New York times’ in which business can keep go on consistently. Also, ‘The New York times’ has recently announced that the estimated subscribers have reached 250,000 (Gillmor, 2011). This is the way in which newspaper can make profit and survive with large expense.

Due to the appearance of digital and networked media, a power transfer as these new platforms have the ability to affect and grasp more attention than ever before (Boyd, 2009). Digital and networked media is in fact dealing for more publishing to take place, whereas, traditional media sees that their extent is seen as limited and this one central source had relied originally by its readers.

It is obviously that accessing and publishing information is severely shifting, and some aspects is often perceived as a weakness, such as, a lack of high-quality journalism and the reduction of business in publishing. “Like likability, full archivability and full accessibility to archives is something that the traditional media lack totally. It is one of the most powerful features of online journalism.” This quote implies that online journalism is had more advantage than print-journalism in publishing industry (Prasad, 2009).

Apparently, the internet has reformed media distribution and reception that journalists need to alter the content to electronic form. The shift from print to digital facilitates news articles and journalistic content to reach wider audiences than the normal demographic. The style of distribute information via internet are still in needed of accuracy, because the news publishing via internet still need to be reliability and showing the quality to public.

In fact, everyone is turning to get the news via internet in which they are relied more on online news than newspaper. According to ‘OECD Publishing’, the newspaper market was expected to shrink by 10% in 2009 and amazedly the market has had zero growth since 2004. “Employment declines in the newspaper industry have been ongoing since 1997” (OECD Publishing).

Obviously, society had been affect by the rise of digital and networked media, not only the behaviour of public, also, the trend of business. More company will create various digital device which similar to iPad, iPhone, E-reader to cater the digital and networked media.

The digital media are becoming more popular and common in contemporary society, yet a certain part of people, especially, older people, are still reading and buying newspaper every day. Even print circulation decreases, the print form is still surviving and didn’t replaced by digital and networked media.

Are there new difficulties and complexities or expenses involved?

The term “aggregation and distribution” in publishing can be said as self-publishing and connecting (Gauntlett, David, 2010). More people become “journalist” where they can distribute anything immediately and share it globally. Public can take the video or photo at any moment by using their electronic devices, such as, ‘smartphone’, and posted it on the network directly.

Therefore, this new mode of publishing formed new phenomenon in which the number of traditional journalist and the quality of news has declining. Public turns to read the news in a fast and easy accessible way even the information are not published by professional news writer, then, professional editing are become undesirable as before.

Because of the ease of publishing, message saturation has emerged. The expertise for gathering, filtering and organizing content are in needed in digital media, otherwise, information overlapping or overflow will cumber with the whole media archive.

Piracy is also raise frequently in digital media where the content exists in internet can be copy, download, forward or republish. Not much audience will care about the copyright.

Individual’s expenses are rose rapidly where they need to get the electronic device, especially, Smartphone, to cater for the digital age. And this increase will not lessen in future. Below is the graph from ‘IHS iSuppli’:

“Restructuring the ways in which information flows in modern society.” (Boyd, 2010) Creating a new way is what digital media benefits to society. Altering of social needs pattern opening to innovative occasion in our everyday life.

Competition between traditional media and digital and networked media for attention are ongoing. Therefore, it is hard to evaluating the modern media publishing landscape.


Clay Shirky (2009), ‘Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable’, <> accessed on 27th May, 2012

Shaviro, Steven (2007) ‘DeLanda: A New Philosophy of Society’, The Pinocchio Theory, <> accessed on 19th March, 2012

‘Actor Network Rochambeau’, any-space-whatever blog, <>, November 14, 2010 (on Latour) accessed on 19th March, 2012

Gillmor,D (2011), ‘The New York Times paywall: the faint smell of success’, The Guardian, August 3, <> accessed on 12th March, 2012

Boyd, Danah (2009), “Streams of Content, Limited Attention: The Flow of Information through Social Media.” Web2.0 Expo. New York, NY: November 17. <> accessed on 27th May, 2012

Parasad, K, 2009, ‘Online Journalism: Methods and Diversity’, BR Publishing Corporation, Dehli

OECD (2010), News in the Internet Age: New Trends in News Publishing, OECD Publishing. <doi: 10.1787/9789264088702-en> accessed on 27th May, 2012

Gauntlett, David (2010), Making is Connecting <> accessed on 14th May, 2012

Selburn, Jordan, 2011, ‘Rising Media Tablet and Smartphone Sales Cut Demand for Single-Task Consumer Products’, Press Release, IHS iSuppli Corporation, <> accessed on 27th May, 2012

Platform – week 11

Web 2.0 is an application that facilitates information sharing, interoperability, user-oriented design and collaboration on the World Wide Web. A Web 2.0 site allows users’ interaction and collaboration in a social media platform as presumes of user-generated content in a virtual community.

Social networking sites, such as blogs, wikis, video sharing sites, hosted services and web applications are examples of this application. This shows that personalization, individualism and democracy are highly emphasized in the new century of media techniques.

Describing Web 2.0 as a virtual community, this is how the media and advertising industry project visualization on these platforms to simulate audiences’ interests and attentions. I-publishing is introduced alongside with this new web based application; data is now everywhere, everything can be the surface of publishing.

Heritage media tend to publish their news and updates in cross and multi platforms. For instance, newspapers have stepped off the page or screen and into the network through i-publishing (paper based and online news websites). Therefore, Internet is now considered as a multidimensional space for audiences where it is lower production cost, convenient, time saving and accessible no matter where you are. It is mediating space and time.

“i-publishing navigates Ubiquity, data is being everywhere, perhaps all at once, omnipresent” a quote from ‘week ten’s lecture’.

Additionally, according to the readings by ‘Guillaud’, the flow of information in contemporary society facilitates the shift from broadcast media to networked media. The emergence of social network provides a new space for publisher and distributor where people have no longer depend on broadcast media merely. With the Internet, we can upload information in any modes and share with anyone who can access to the internet. For example, posted the text in blog, upload the video in YouTube and posted photo in Facebook where everyone can accessed without space and time limited.

Personally, a new system called ‘Dropbox’ is introduced to me lately, we are asked to share our arts files and documents with classmates through this application. When we want to share a folder on our computer, we can simply invite our friends, family and teammates to a folder in our Dropbox, then it’ll be automatically saved straight to their computers. It is like another file sharing platform for us students. It is easy, never time consuming and convenient, our project content is then co-produced through aggregation. The Dropbox allows us storing data in archives, thus new forms of data, expression, distribution and new assemblage of communication. The Dropbox App is also available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Blackberry. And smartphones users can view the updates no matter when and where they are.


UNSW ARTS2090., 2012. Week 10 Lecture: Visual Perception, Politics, Vjing, web [pdf] NSW: ARTS2090 Lecture Notes. Available through: UNSW ARTS2090 Blog

<> accessed in 11th May 2012

Guillaud, Hubert (2010) (on Danah Boyd) ‘What is implied by living in a world of flow?’, Truthout, January 6, <> accessed in 11th May 2012

<> accessed in 15th April 2012

Presentation – week 10

Presentation is to introduce and report something to others, like idea and study. Visual material is the most important things to include in the presentation where it can facilitate your content become reliable and interesting.

When people need to present something to others, they should create the visual material, like picture or video, to prove what idea they presenting. Therefore, visualisation should be included as vital component of presentation.

For example, my group-mate and I have to present a research about people who using mobile phone in toilet. Almost all people will go to toilet with their mobile phone, and we just make it visible. And the image that we created is to make the statistics into the visual picture. The invisible event is the research from The “IT in the Toilet” study based on an online survey of 1,000 Americans with mobile phones in October 2011.

The picture includes the number and statistics may distribute more reliable information. Also, the study of “IT in the Toilet” is wide and quite complicated, but this picture shows the main point of the survey which can cut down the unnecessary data. Moreover, this picture also attracts the attention that audience will be more focus on it. The importance of presentation is to catch the audience attention, and, information graphic is one of efficient ways to present your idea rather than provide all of the text, number and words to the audience.

Another example, according to “Common Craft”, the website is introducing RSS as a way to subscribe to websites and save time on the Web. There are both video and long texts included in the webpage. Both video and text are teaching audience how to engage to the RSS. However, video should be more attractive to view rather than the word form content. It can be imagine that if the webpage didn’t include the video, most of the audience should not spend time on reading the whole text. Therefore, making invisible things visible is significant when people want to present something to others.


<> accessed in 1st May, 2012

Commoncraft (2007) ‘RSS in Plain English’ Commoncraft, <>accessed in 7th May, 2012

< >accessed in 7th May, 2012

Do visual media work differently to other media forms? – Week 9

Visual media absolutely work differently to other media forms. Visual media is an intermediate through which people can get information, news or data along with pictures. It is a medium to spread our ideas with help of pictures. Visual media is effectively in making the information simple, clear and reliable.

Visual media, like a real photo, is more efficiently to lead audience believed the information and data. For example, according to the news published in ‘’ by Anon, the article tells us that the polar bear is being threatened by the climate change. We can realise that global warming caused ice melting and the proportion of habitat is decreasing, and, polar bear will extinct soon if the ice keeps melting. It is hard to lead people entirely believed the dangerous situation of the polar bear without see it in real, because I’m sure that not much people have been in arctic before. Therefore, photo is the most helpful evidence to prove this content. It is where visual media work differently to other media forms; they present information in a way that people can see.

Moreover, a diverse range of content is sometimes difficult to know where to start. Visual media is used to simplify the complex information and indicated to publics in a transparent form. For example, according to the source from ‘’, intricate data of CO2 has been showed by the graph that we can clearly know the number of CO2 is increasing from 1955 until now and it will increasing in the future. Traditional media, like print media, usually list all the data by word that audience will not get the main message promptly. Reader will have trouble to understand the connection between the years and the number of CO2 by themselves, when the number presented through the article. Therefore, we know that not all of information can be present by word form. Visual media is the only effective mode to show the complex information when the complex information is hard to described in words.

Additionally, visual media can show the relationship of the multi-information much better than the other media forms. Audience can clearly understand the connection between the related information in a picture. For example, the picture from ‘Information is Beautiful’ by Anon indicated both CO2 levels and global temperature in single picture. Such multi-information is not able to present in print media, because it is hard to describe all the information in words. Therefore, visual media is the only choice to present this data effectively.

Furthermore, voluminous data can be presented in video that can reduce much more time of audience to get the message. For example, the video below shows ten years sequence of global fires. Audience can only spend one minute to go through ten years observation of fire around the world. This is what traditional media can’t do it as well.

In conclusion, today’s society is highly visual, and visual imagery is no longer supplemental to other forms of information. New digital technologies have made it possible for almost anyone to create and share visual media. Thus, I can say that visual media definitely work differently to other media forms.


Anon. (2008) ‘Struggling polar bears put on endangered list’,, May 15, <>, accessed 29th April, 2012

The co2now blog, <>, accessed 29th April, 2012

Anon. (2009) ‘The Global Warming Skeptics versus the Scientific Consensus’, Information is Beautiful, <>, accessed 29th April, 2012

<>, accessed 30th April, 2012

Information graphics – week 8

Due to the heavy proliferation of media and message saturation, public are now inundated with various information. As a result, publishers are finding it increasingly difficult to ensure their messages have the desired impact on public. Information graphic is an effective way to solve these problems where the complex and inexplicable information can be show to the public in a simple picture after organised and condensed.

In making data easy to see through the use of appealing imagery and creative design one is able to communicate complex ideas to people who have a lesser level of understanding.

For example, the graphic from ‘The Washington Post’, when the public want to know about the levels of press freedom in different countries, they don’t need to read all of the survey and collect the information by them. They can just download the data graphic which is already analysed and is a summary of what they want to know.

I think the key to effectively communicating with information graphics is to keep the amount of information presented to a minimum.

Colour is one of vital elements of information graphic, the eyes-catching colour such as red and black can bring to a focus. For instance, the graphic above, the countries which shaded in red or black colour presenting the less freedom that compare with other countries. Another example below from ‘Volumeone’, the eyes-catching colour, like red, is indicating the countries which have the lower percentage of population under nourished.

Therefore, people will be more minds on these colours when they see the graphic. Because these colours usually providing the information which is significant and is more value to become adverted. So that, publisher is used to using the eyes-catching colour to let audience focus on the main message.

By using the visualization, the complex message can be communicate clearly and quickly, especially the abstract concept. For example, the graphics below from ‘McDonald’ depicting nutrition contained in the food compiles a significantly complex series of data bases into one easy to understand diagram.

The abstract concepts such as calories, protein and fats can be visualized in a clear and simple form. People can count and record the number of the abstract concepts by visual data. In this food graphics, data visualization can be an effective reference to the public who are on diet that they can estimate how many things they have incepted. People who are on diet can also compared the food by this visual data that they can choose the proper food. Additionally, McDonald provided a food archive to public that all the food they are supplying will be listed on information graphics which can be read on their website.

Visualization is one of significant modes of publishing in current society where people can get the main message within massy information immediately and also can see the benefit of keeping data presentation as simple and concise as possible.


Melissa, Bell, 2012, ‘U.S. falls 27 places in worldwide freedom of the press rankings’, Blog Post, The Washington Post <> accessed in 21 April 2012

VolumeOne LLC., 2012, ‘Good Magazine. Transparency. Information Graphics’ <> accessed in 21 April 2012

Infosthetics, 2006, Information aesthetics, ‘McDonald’s menu charts’ <> accessed in 21 April 2012

Week 6 – Infotention

The word “Infotention” is a crucial concept for publishing. According to ‘Howard Rheingold’, infotention implies a mind-machine combination of brain-powered attention skills and computer-powered information filters. The inside and outside of infotention work best together with a third element which is sociality (Rheingold, H, 2009).

Here is a non-interactive representation of the infotention cmap:

The theory reveals the interdependent relationship between attraction and distraction. Nowadays, we are crammed with the free flow of information, publications and ideas. This is what makes our attraction very scarce as information is highly accessible. The same goes for distraction, for example, without an advertisement on the television that informs me about the latest release of iPad by Apple, my attention would not have been taken from what I was doing. Both attraction and distraction cannot survive without each other’s existence.

The idea suggests users to undergo attention discipline and part technical skill, to protect ourselves from information overload. According to Howard Rheingold’s video, ‘Part One’ and ‘Part Two’, they are introducing the mental and technical aspects of information dashboards, radars, and filters, also, shows how to build an information dashboard.

Part two of the video includes using RSS reader to personalize the sources of information, Netvibes to organize your own way of consuming news.

Furthermore, it is also recommended that users start at an early stage to restrict a certain amount of information to our inboxes, in which he calls it “network literacy”. Not only this, is a wise and less time-consuming way for readers, also a better way for advertisers to promote to their target groups. This can be referred from the video “Network Literacy Part One” where Rheingold discusses about the way structure and dynamics of networks influences political freedom, economic wealth creation, and participation in the creation of culture.

In addition, with the underlying technical architecture of the Internet, the freedom to innovation is largely facilitated. This results in the assemblages of attention in publishing. When investigating the assemblages, it is important to examine its commons: The stakeholders of information, personal, state-owned, public and corporate data.

Undoubtedly, data is collectively owned and produced by internet users, this further leads to a redistribution of attention in publishing. The implications of the digital commons are that more opinions are circulated, freedom of speech is more supported, and different kinds of public, such as, private and public, get to come collaborate and result in social consequences.

In conclusion, the relationships between publishing, attention and social collectivity are intertwined. Publishing attracts and distracts attention at the same time; while attention is able to be attracted and distracted deliberately and voluntarily by infotention; while social collectivity can be both a result and a stimulant to publish and attract attention.


Rheingold, Howard (2009) ‘Mindful Infotention: Dashboards, Radars, Filters’, SFGate,<>, accessed 29 March

Rheingold, Howard (2011) ‘Infotention Part One’, YouTube, <>, accessed 29 March

Rheingold, Howard (2011) ‘Infotention Part Two’, YouTube, <>, accessed 29 March 2012

Rheingold, Howard (2011) ‘Network Literacy Part One’, YouTube, <>, accessed 29 March 2012

O’Malley, Mike (2010) ‘Attention and Information’ The Aporetic, <>

Boyd, Stowe (2010) ‘The False Question of Attention Economics’, Stowe Boyd, <>, accessed 29 March 2012

Fever – week 5

In Archive Fever, Jacques Derrida points out that the notion of archiving has fruitfully brought us an extended meditation on remembrance, time and technology. The word ‘Archive’ simply means different media processes which in turn often form the basis of cultural activity: Electronic media, particularly e-mail, just like today’s social networking platforms has transformed the entire public and private space of humanity (Derrida, J, 1996).

Archives both reflect and shape society at certain points in time. Identity and time, these are two critical aspects of the theory. It was once suggested that archive constructs different ways of publishing which constitute institutions, modes of living, our sense of who we are, both individually and collectively (Stokes, J, 2003).

With the advent of the digital and social media, it seems that personal archiving has grown. For instance, I often find myself rearranging my photos on my phone as I take new photos randomly. I also actively engage in naming folders on my laptop and sorting file types, new and old files, almost every day. Additionally, I usually share the photos and files with my friends via Facebook. It can be seen that we are creating archives of our lives, our experiences, our thoughts, and every tiny little matter we come across everyday.

Furthermore, “Instagram” is a good example in describing the word “archives”. Instagram is a free photo sharing program launched in October 2010 allows us to take an instant picture and share on it. Facebook gradually partnership with / take over instagram, and that these two separated media platforms have been incorporated, then a new collection of archives is formed.

Moreover, what interests me most about archiving is the power in deciding what is stored, what is left out and who gets to make these decisions. With the prevalence of the internet has come an incredible broadening of the modes of publishing. The ease at which everyone with an internet connection can become a publisher has meant that the process of archiving has experienced a social equaliser.

What is stored and what is destroyed has now taken the form of a meritocracy. Originally it was the elite who had the power to choose what is stored and what is destroyed, now it is anyone with access to the internet. This has led to an explosion in publishing and archiving. This is what I take to mean Archive Fever.

In conclusion, I think that archiving the provenance of us being so deeply immersed in mediated cultures and enthusiastic to experiment with different modes of publishing like social media and eReaders. Not only us individuals embrace archiving and are mostly unaware of how this habit has affected us, even has defined authority in institutions and the market operate according to their different kinds archives.


Derrida, Jacques (1996) Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Stokes, Jon (2003) ‘Reading Notes: Archive Fever’, Ars Technica, June 27, <> accessed on 25 March 2012

Instagram, Inc., 2012, <> accessed on 25 March 2012

Assemblage – week four

Analyzing interweaver of publishing’s relation to broader society and the changes in publishing, media and the social, based on two theories which are ‘Actor Network Theory’ by Bruno Latour and ‘Assemblage Theory’ by DeLanda

The term ‘assemblages’ called by Bruno Latour is means a network which combine with lots of different parts, and it can be divided to human and non-human “actants” . Bruno Latour also thinks that many relations act as a whole are based on the interactions between material and concept.

Based on the ‘Actor Network Theory’, the human of component in media may include producer, reader, distributor, reception, audience, electronic device repairer, etc. On the other hand, non-human “actants” may include iPad, iPhone, erearder, font, network system, software, etc. Both human and non-human elements in media work together constantly because there is relationship between all of the elements.

DeLanda’s assemblage theory was basically similar to Bruno Latour’s theory. DeLanda’s theory indicated that all components and relations had been connected and constantly changing. DeLanda provided an example of assemblage that indicated the importance and different role of each part. The material role and expressive role in DeLanda’s assemblage theory can be known as human and non-human in Bruno Latour’s theory. Different roles have their own function and the components can be recombine or replace various parts. All of the roles are use to maintain each other (Shaviro, S, 2007).

Below is the example of assemblage


‘Actor Network Theory’, Wikipedia, <> accessed in 18 March 2012

‘Actor Network Rochambeau’, any-space-whatever blog, <>, November 14, 2010 (on Latour)

Shaviro, Steven (2007) ‘DeLanda: A New Philosophy of Society’, The Pinocchio Theory

Tatnall & Gidding, 1999, <> accessed in 18 March 2012

Mode of publishing – Week 3

Online publishing has quickly become a popular alternative to physical materials. This particular mode of publishing provides consumers with convenience and accessibility and also broadens the community of audiences publishers can communicate with.

A paywall refers to a system which prevents online users from accessing and engaging with online content without paid subscription. This means users must pay a certain amount, may be by weekly, monthly or annually, in order to access and read news material online.

Accroding to ‘Salmon’, he compares the paywall systems taken on board by the New York Times and other newspapers such as the Wall Street Journal and the Financial Times. By doing so, he explains how and why the paywall system of the NYT is more successful and efficient than that of the WSJ or the FT.

Salmon argues that the Times pay wall is porous, it is easy to get around however that’s the whole reason he believes it is successful. “It allows anybody, anywhere, to read any NYT article they like. That makes the NYT open and inviting — and means that I continue to be very happy to link to NYT stories”.

Salmon also points out that if people value and appreciate something, they are more likely to be happy to pay for it. Additionally, the Times trusts its readers so if they value what they are getting from the NYT, they will pay for it.

In contrast, Salmon states that the paywall system of the WSJ and the FT take a hard pay wall approach because they treat their readers with mistrust. Also, the WSJ and the FT have a defensive paywall system, “…fearing that if their readers can get their content for free, then they won’t pay”.

The different online paywall systems initiated by the NYT, the WSJ and the FT serve as interesting business models for future online published content. By exploring these different paywalls systems, we are able to distinguish models that work from the ones that don’t.

Moreover, Salmon’s article proposes that if you give people a sample of something free that is a good experience for them then eventually they will pay for the subscription. He uses the Indianapolis Museum of Art as an example. The Museum moved from a free admission policy to a paid one and their paid membership increased by 3%. Same with the Minneapolis Institute of Arts whose membership increased by 33%.

In conclusion, I would rather pay all those news subscription fees all over again instead of scrolling those tiny little pictures and reading those teensy words online.


Salmon, Felix (2011) ‘How The New York Times Paywall is Working’, Wired, August 14, <>

Ereaders – Week 2

In current few decades, the mode of publishing has been obviously changed from printing to digital because of the development of technology. It is not surprise that printing will be wash out by digital in the future.

Even though the printing is still using in society, many people do not simply depending on it. Because of the technology, there are lot of different platforms for public to publish and incept the information.

Traditionally the term publishing referred to the distribution of printed works such as newspapers, magazines and books. However, with the advent of the Internet and digital information, the traditional forms of publishing have been beginning to change and take new shapes. Digital information has expanded the scope of publishing.

Writers can now publish articles and information onto the internet on many different platforms and forums, for instances, YouTube, Google, websites, blogs, micro-publishing, e-readers, iPhones and iPads.

Today with the invention of iPads and e-readers the way that we read and live our lives is starting to change. No longer can people be bothered to walk to the library and rent out a book, take it home and read it. Now you buy an e-reader or an iPad and you download as many books as you want in minutes. We don’t have to carry books around anymore where we can just carry around one device (Naughton, John, 2010).

Publishing content on e-readers such as the iPad or the Kindle provides readers with an ‘immersive reading experience’, something that a physical book cannot provide. According to ‘Naughton’, he illustrates this very point by using the magazine, the ‘Econimist’ as his example. Naughton explains that when people buy the Economist, they make a week ‘appointment’ with the magazine, meaning that readers set aside time to read the magazine.

By making the Economist available for download on the iPad, Naughton claims readers will experience many advantages such as being able to download actual content, read-Download, have a much easier and more pleasant reading experience than its printed counterpart and interact with content that is clever, informative, intriguing and fresh (Naughton, John, 2010).

Furthermore, according to ‘National Public Radio’, e-devices have not only changes the concept of the book but also the psychology of how we access books. In the past, in order for a reader to read a particular book, he/she had to overcome ‘obstacles’. For example, the consumer had to go to the bookstore, ask for the book and if it isn’t there or isn’t available, he/she would have to wait for the book Now individuals are able to read and access a book whenever he/she desires. E-devices allow readers to choose the means by which they will access the book as it allows readers to read the book when, where and how he/she wants to.

In conclusion, the variety of publishing has reached an unprecedented scale combined with multimedia platform to express ideas and convey messages. E-readers will continue to bring publishing to a great new level (Lehrer, Jonah, 2010).


Naughton, John (2010) ‘Publishers take note: the iPad is altering the very concept of a ‘book’ The Guardian, December 19, <> accessed 4 March 2012

National Public Radio (2010) ‘E-Book Boom Changes Book Selling And Publishing’, December 21, <> accessed 4 March 2012

Lehrer, Jonah (2010) ‘The Future of Reading’, Wired, September 8, <> accessed 4 March 2012